Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of this glossary, it should be noted that additions and corrections continue to be a work in progress.

Abalone:
A mollusk found along the coasts of California, Mexico, and Japan with a large, edible adductor muscle similar to that of the scallop.
Acid:
A substance having a sour or sharp flavor. Foods generally referred to as “acids” include citrus juice, vinegar, and wine. A substance measuring less than 7 on the pH scale.
Acidulated Water:
Water to which a small amount of acid, such as wine, lemon or lime juice, or vinegar has been added. It is used as a soak to prevent the oxidation of cut fruits and vegetables such as apples, pears, avocados, and artichokes.
Acorn Squash:
A Winter squash with dark green ribbed skin and bright orange flesh. Easy to prepare and excellent if simple baked and topped with butter, brown sugar and a pinch of nutmeg and
cinnamon.
Adulterated Food:
Food contaminated to the point that it is considered unfit for human consumption.
Agnolotti:
Small stuffed crescent shaped pasta. May be filled with meat, cheese, seafood, pesto or a combination of any of these according to taste.
Aioli:
The French word for garlicy mayonnaise. In Italian it is called allioli; in Spanish, aliolio.
Albumen:
The major protein in egg whites.
Al dente:

The Italian word literally meaning “to the tooth.” Foods such as pasta or vegetables cooked until tender but still firm are considered to be al dente.
A La Mode:
Served with ice cream.
Alkali:
A substance that tests higher than 7 on the pH scale. Baking soda, avocados, cabbage, cucumbers, and olives are but a few alkaline foods.
Allumette:
Carrots, potatoes, and other vegetables cut into pieces the size and shape of matchsticks; 1/8-inch x 1/8-inch x 1 to 2 inches.
Almond Paste:
A combination of ground almonds, sugar, glycerin or another liquid. It is the basis of Marzipan, however the two cannot be interchanged in most recipes.
Almonds:
Not an actual nut, but the kernel of the almond tree fruit. Almonds are packed with calcium, fiber, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin E. Blanched, unsalted almonds contain about 170 calories per ounce.
Amandine:
A description of a food which is garnished or cooked with toasted or sauteed almonds.

Amino Acid:
An important nutritional component considered essential for building and repairing cells within the human body. They are best acquired from eating meats, eggs and dairy.
Anchovies:
A tiny, silvery fish found along Mediterranean and southern European coastlines. When purchased fresh, their flavor is mild and the texture tender. Most anchovies are sold in cans or jars where they have been filleted, salt-cured, and packed in olive oil.
Anchovy Paste:
A mixture of pounded anchovies, vinegar, spices, and water sold in tubes.
Angel Food Cake:
A type of sponge cake made with egg whites that are beaten until stiff.</dd)

Antipasto:
This Italian term means “before the pasta” and refers to an assortment of Italian appetizers.
Appareil:
A mixture of ingredients that can be used alone or as an ingredient in another preparation.
Appetizer:
Light foods served before a meal. These may be cold or hot, plated or served as finger food.
Aromatics:
Herbs, spices, and other plant ingredients used to enhance the flavor and fragrance of food.
Arrowroot:
A powdered starch made from a dried tropical tuber root and used for thickening broths, gravies, and sauces; remains clear when cooked.
Aspic:
A clear jelly made from stock (sometimes fruit or vegetable juice) that has been thickened with gelatin. Aspic is used to coat foods or cubed and used as garnish.
Au Gratin:
French cooking term, used for describing sauced dishes that are topped with bread crumbs, or cheese or both and then broiled until slightly browned. It is often used to describe dishes that are covered or baked in a creamy cheese sauce.
Au Jus:
Served in the juice of roasted meat.

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Bagna Cauda:
An Italian sauce or dip made of olive oil, butter, garlic & anchovies. Served warm with raw vegetables.
Baguette:
French bread that is shaped into a long thin loaf. Crusty on the outside and very light and chewy on the inside. Baguettes often have large “hole” on the inside resulting from the amount of air that is left in them to ensure the light texture.
Bake:
To cook food surrounded by dry heat, generally in an oven.
Baking Powder:
A chemical leavener made with baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), cream of tartar, and cornstarch. The most common is double-acting, which releases its leavening properties first when exposed to liquid and then when exposed to heat.
Baking Soda:
Also known as bicarbonate of soda (or sodium bicarbonate), produces carbon dioxide gas when combined with acidic ingredients such as buttermilk, yogurt, or molasses; a component that can be used along or in combination with baking powder as a leavening agent.
Basting:
A method using stock, sauce or other liquid during cooking to keep food moist and prevent it from drying out. It also adds flavor and promotes browning.
Baton/Batonnet:
The French term for cutting vegetables into pieces a little larger than allumette or julienne: 1/4-inch x 1/4-inch x 2 to 2 1/2 inches. The English translation of the words are “stick” or “small stick.”
Beat:
To make a mixture smooth by whipping or stirring with a spoon, electric mixer, fork, wire whisk, or beater. To stir vigorously with a spoon, fork, wire whisk, hand beater or electric mixer to smooth and lighten a mixture.
Binder:
An ingredient used to thicken a sauce or hold together a mixture of ingredients.
Bisque:
A thick cream soup usually made with fish or shellfish.
Blanching:
A technique of briefly cooking food in boiling water, then placing it in cold water to stop the cooking. This method is used to set the color and flavor of foods before finishing or storing. It is also used to loosen the skin of items such as tomatoes or peaches in order to easily peel them. This technique should not be confused with “parboiling” which, while similar, is cooked longer.
Blend:
To combine ingredients until smooth and uniform in texture, flavor, and color. To stir, or beat ingredients to form a well combined mixture.
Boil:
To heat liquid to 212 degrees F., which causes a constant production of bubbles that rise and break the surface and cannot be “stirred down.”

Bone:
To remove all meat from the bone before cooking.
Bouquet Garni:
A bunch of herbs, usually thyme, bay leaf and parsley tied together with a string or in a cheesecloth bag with a string attached which is added to a soup or stew to add flavour but it subsequently removed before serving.
Braising:
A cooking method in which less tender meats or other foods are seared in fat, then simmered slowly in a small amount of stock or another liquid in a covered vessel.
Bread:
To coat in breadcrumbs (or cracker or other dry crumbs).
Brew:
To prepare a beverage by allowing boiling water to extract flavor and/or color from certain substances.
Brochette:
Food grilled on a skewer.
Broiling:
A method of cooking in which the heat source is placed over the food.
Broth:
A light soup made from simmering fish, meat or vegetables in water.
Brown:
To cook food in butter, oil or fat over a high heat until it becomes “browned” according to cooking directions. Browning ranges from lightly browned to dark golden brown.
Brunoise:
The French term for small dice; normally 1/8-inch cubes, or 1/16-inch cubes for fine brunoise.
Butterfly:
To cut meat, seafood, or poultry in such as way that the edges open out like a book, or the wings of a butterfly.

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Canape:
An hors d’oeuvre consisting of a small piece of bread or toast, usually cut into a decorative shape, garnished with a savory spread or topping.
Caramelize:
The process of causing sugar or the natural sugars in food to darken to a golden brown and develop a rich flavor by cooking on a constant heat. To make a mixture of sugar and butter, heat over low heat until brown and coast vegetables or meat according to recipes instructions.
Cassoulet:
Stew or white beans baked with pork or other meats, duck confit, and seasonings.
Charcuterie:
A French term for the preparation of pork and other meats, such as hams, terrines, sausages, pates, and forcemeats.
Chiffonade:
Leafy vegetables or herbs cut into fine shreds.
Chop:
To cut food into small pieces. A knife is normally used, but a food processor can be helpful if you’re chopping a large amount of food.
Clarified Butter:
Butter from which the milk solids and water have been removed, leaving only pure butterfat, giving it a higher smoke point that whole butter but less flavor.
Compound Butter:
Whole butter combined with herbs and/or other seasonings and used as a sauce for grilled/broiled meats and vegetables.
Coat:
To dip food into egg, bread crumbs, or sauce until completely covered. Also used do describe covering baked goods with frosting or icing.
Cool:
To refrigerate or let food sit at room temperature until it is no longer warm to the touch.
Confit:
Duck, goose, pork or other meat cooked and preserved in its own fat.
Coquilles St. Jacques:
A dish made of scallops cooked in a creamy wine sauce, topped with bread crumbs and sometimes cheese. It is traditionally served in scallop shaped shells, but personal ramekins would also be suitable.
Coulis:
A thick puree of vegetables or fruits.
Couscous:
Pronounced, KOOS-koos. Couscous is associated with Morocco, but is a staple of the North African cuisine. Couscous is granular semolina (cracked wheat) which can be cooked and served as a porridge, as a type of salad (similar to pasta salad), or served with various fruits. Couscous varies from country to country, Moroccans tend to include saffron, Algerians like to add tomatoes and Tunisians spice theirs up with the hot pepper based harissa sauce.
Cream:
To beat butter or shortening, either alone or with sugar, until it is light and fluffy. To combine food until soft by beating with a spoon, whisk, or a hand mixer. To beat or blend to the consistency of cream.
Cream Of Tartar:
An acid ingredient which stabilizes beaten egg whites. As a rule of thumb, use 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar per egg white or 1 teaspoon per cup of egg whites. For meringues, use 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar for each 2 egg whites.
Cream Puff:
A light, but rich, hollow pastry puff which may be filled with a sweet filling for dessert or with a savory one such as chicken salad for a main dish. Called a choux pastry after the French word for cabbage, cream puffs do come out of the oven looking like little cabbages.
Cream Sauce:
A cream sauce is but a roux… you can make this to serve over any vegetable. Just chop some onion, sauté in LOTS of butter. When onion is translucent, add milk, then flour, stirring until you get the consistency that you want! No measurements needed, just add milk & flour until you get the thickness & taste you want.
Creme fraiche:
A thick heavy cultured cream with slightly tangy flavor, used in hot preparations since it is more heat stable than sour cream or yogurt.
Crepe:
A light, thin, egg-rich pancake. The word is French, but the crepe is so versatile that you’ll find it in many other languages. It’s A Russian Blini, A Jewish Blintz, A Chinese Egg Roll, A Greek Krep Or A Hungarian Palascinta. Depending on the filling, it can be an appetizer, a main dish or a dessert. Crepe batter should be the consistency of heavy cream. Letting it rest for an hour or so after mixing allows the flour to absorb moisture and lets the air bubbles dissipate so that the crepe does not have tiny holes. Crepes can be made in advance, stacked, wrapped and refrigerated for a few days, then reheated to serve. For longer storage, double-wrap and freeze.
Crumb:
The term used to describe the texture of baked goods.
Crush:
To press into very fine particles.
Cube:
To cut meat, poultry or vegetables into pieces. To cut food into 1/2 to 1-inch cubes.
Cumin:
Also known as Comino, Cumin seeds come in three colors: Amber, white and black. Cumin, a dried fruit of the parsley family is available in seed or ground form. It is most commonly used in Curry dishes and Chili dishes.
Curdle:
To congeal milk with heat until solid lumps or curds are formed.
Curdling:
Also known as syneresis or weeping. When egg mixtures such as custards or sauces are cooked too rapidly, the protein becomes over-coagulated and separates from the liquid leaving a mixture resembling fine curds and whey. If curdling has not progressed too far, it may sometimes be reversed by removing the mixture from the heat and stirring or beating vigorously. To prevent syneresis or curdling, use a low temperature, stir, if appropriate for the recipe, and cool quickly by setting the pan in a bowl of ice or cold water and stirring for a few minutes. The term curdling is usually used in connection with a stirred mixture such as custard sauce, while weeping or syneresis are more often used with reference to pie meringues or baked custards.
Cut In:
To work a solid fat such as butter or shortening into dry ingredients. To combine a solid fat such as lard into dry ingredients by using either two knives in a short cutting motion or a pastry blender or even a fork to cut the fat into pieces of a desired size.
Custard:
A mixture of milk, beaten egg, and usually sweet or savory flavorings, which are cooked with gentle heat, many times in a bain-marie, double-boiler, or water bath.

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Dash:
A small amount less than 1/8 of a teaspoon (Use 1/2 of a 1/8 teaspoon measure).
Deep Fry:
To cook by completely immersing food in very hot fat.
Deglaze:
The use of wine, water, stock, or other liquid to dissolve food particles and/or caramelized drippings left in a pan after roasting or sauteing.
Demitasse:
A small cup of coffee served after dinner.
Deep-fry:
To cook in a deep pan or skillet containing hot cooking oil. Deep-fried foods are generally completely immersed in the hot oil.
Devil:
To prepare with spicy seasoning or sauce.
Dice:
To cut ingredients into small cubes; 1/4-inch for small, 1/3-inch for medium, 3/4-inch for large.
Dissolve:
To stir a solid food into a liquid to form a mixture in which the solid food does not remain.
Dollop:
Not an exact measurement but would be equivalent to approximately a heaping spoonful.
Dot:
To scatter small bits of butter over top of a food. To randomly drop small pieces of an ingredient over food.
Dredge:
To coat food in a dry ingredients such as flour or breadcrumbs.
Drippings:
The juices left from meat which has been roasted.
Durum:
A type of hard wheat primarily used to make semolina flour for use in pasta.
Dust:
To sprinkle a food lightly with a dry ingredient.

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Egg Blood Spots (also called meat spots):
Occasionally found on an egg yolk. Contrary to popular opinion, these tiny spots do not indicate a fertilized egg. Rather, they are caused by the rupture of a blood vessel on the yolk surface during formation of the egg or by a similar accident in the wall of the oviduct. Less than 1% of all eggs produced have blood spots. Mass candling methods reveal most eggs with blood spots and those eggs are removed but, even with electronic spotters, it is impossible to catch all of them. As an egg ages, the yolk takes up water from the albumen to dilute the blood spot so, in actuality, a blood spot indicates that the egg is fresh. Both chemically and nutritionally, these eggs are fit to eat. The spot can be removed with the tip of a knife, if you wish.
Eggnog:
A beverage of eggs, milk, sugar and flavoring. Rich cream may take the place of part or all of the milk. Spirits are often added at holiday time. Eggnog may be served hot or cold, but it should be prepared as a stirred custard. The name may come from the noggin or small cup in which it was served in earlier days.
Egg Wash:
A mixture of beaten eggs and usually milk or water, used to give baked goods a sheen.
Emulsion:
Suspension of two liquid ingredients that do not dissolve into each other (oil and water).
Etouffe:
A French term meaning “smothered.” This is a cooking method similar to braising in which items are cooked with little or no added liquid in a pan with a tight-fitting lid. Also, a Cajun stew.
Evaporated Milk:
A canned, unsweetened whole milk product that has had sixty percent of the water removed.

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Fat:
A concentrated source of food energy containing 9 calories per gram. In addition to supplying energy, fat aids in the absorption of certain vitamins, enhances flavor, aroma and mouth-feel of food, and adds satiety to the diet. Fatty acids, the basic chemical units of fat, are either saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Saturated fatty acids are found primarily in fats of animal origin (meat and dairy products) and are usually solids at room temperature. Exceptions are some vegetable oils (palm, palm kernel and coconut) which contain large amounts of saturated fatty acids. Saturated fat increases blood cholesterol. Monounsaturated fatty acids are found in fats of both plant and animal origin. They tend to decrease blood cholesterol levels. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are found primarily in fats of plant origin and in fats of fatty fish. They also tend to decrease blood cholesterol levels.
Ferment:
To change the chemical composition of certain foods through the action of microorganisms. For example, yeast acts on malt to produce beer.<
File:
A flavoring and thickener made from ground, dried, sassafras leaves; used at times in gumbo.
Fines Herbes:
A combination of chives, chervil, tarragon and parsley.
Fold:
A method of gently mixing ingredients. Use a rubber spatula to cut down through the mixture, move across the bottom of the bowl, and come back up, “folding” some of the mixture from the bottom close to the surface. Using a gentle over and under motion to combine ingredients to prevent loss of air that may result from stirring or beating. To blend a delicate, frothy mixture into a heavier one preferably with a rubber spatula so that none of the lightness or volume is lost. The motion used is one of turning under and bringing up.
Fondant:
An icing made with sugar, water, and glucose, primarily used for pastries and confectioneries.
Fondue:
From the French word fondre, meaning “melt,” the term “fondue” has several meanings. It is basically a casual dining procedure in which the food is dipped (or even cooked) in a single heated pot at the table. In French cooking, the term “fondue” refers to finely chopped vegetables that have been reduced to a pulp by lengthy and slow cooking. This mixture is often used as a garnish, usually with meats or fish.
Forcemeat:
A mixture of chopped or ground meat and other ingredients used for pates, sausages, and other preparations.
Fry:
Fast browning and cooking food in varying amounts of fat, most often at a high heat. To cook in a pan or skillet containing hot cooking oil. The oil should not totally cover the food.
Fumet:
The French word for stock in which the main ingredient is allowed to cook with wine and aromatics. Fish fumet is the most common.

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Ganache:
A glaze made of heavy cream, chocolate, and other flavorings. Used primarily for cakes and truffles.
Garnish:
Add extra appeal to a finished dish, such as a sprig of parsley or the cherry on top of the sundae.
Glaze:
To cover or coat with sauce, syrup, or egg white. After applying, it hardens and becomes firm adding color and flavor.
Grand Sauce:
One of several base sauces used to prepare many other sauces; sometimes called “mother” sauces. These are demi-glace, veloute, bechamel, hollandaise, and tomato.
Grate:
Use a grater to rub food, such as vegetables, cheeses and spices, across surface to make fine pieces.
Grease:
To coat with a thin layer of fat or cooking spray. Usually to keep food (such as bread or cake) from sticking to the pan.
Grind:
To cut, crush, or force through a chopper so as to produce small bits.

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Hollandaise:
A classic sauce made with a vinegar reduction, egg yolks, clarified melted butter ,and lemon juice; one of the grand sauces.
Hors d’oeuvre:
The French word for appetizer. Actual translation means “outside the work.”

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Infusion:
The technique of steeping and aromatic or other flavoring in liquid to extract its flavor.

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Jell:
To become semisolid either through chilling or the addition of gelatin or pectin.
Juice:
Extracted liquid that comes from fruits, vegetables or meats.
Julienne:
Vegetables, potatoes, or other items cut into thin strips; 1/8-inch x 1/8-inch x 1 to 2 inches. A fine julienne is 1/16-inch x 1/16-inch x 1 to 2 inches.
Jus:
The French word literally meaning, “juice.” Generally it refers to a meat gravy.

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Knead:
To fold and press dough with the heel of the hand until smooth and uniform.
Kosher:
Prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary laws.
Kosher Salt:
Also called pickling salt, is pure, refined rock salt with no magnesium carbonate, thus it does not cloud brine. It is used in kosher items.

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Leavener:
Any ingredient or process that produces air bubbles and causes the rising of baked goods.
Lecithin:
One of the factors in egg yolk that helps to stabilize emulsions such as mayonnaise, salad dressings and Hollandaise sauce. Lecithin contains a phospholipid, acetycholine, which has been demonstrated to have a profound effect on brain function.
Liaison:
An egg yolk and cream mixture used to thicken and enrich sauces.
Lox:
Salt-cured salmon.

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Marbling:
The intramuscular fat found in meat that make the meat tender and juicy.
Marinate:
A process of flavoring food by soaking in a liquid or dry mixture. The liquid is usually called a “marinade.” To soak usually in a highly seasoned oil-acid solution so as to flavor and/or tenderize food.
Marshmallow:

A soft confection made from sugar, corn syrup, egg white and gelatin.
Marzipan:
A mixture of ground almonds, sugar, and egg whites that is used to fill and decorate pastries.
Mash
To remove all lumps from food with either a fork, a potato masher, or electric beater.
Mayonnaise:
A cold emulsion of oil, egg yolks, lemon juice, mustard and seasonings.The egg yolk acts as an emulsifying ingredient to keep the oil and the vinegar from separating. In making mayonnaise, remember to add the oil to the egg-liquid mixture very slowly.
Melt:
To heat a solid food until it becomes liquid or semi-liquid.
Meringue:
A foam of beaten egg white and sugar. Egg foams were used in pastries much earlier, but the name meringue came from a pastry chef named Gasparini in the Swiss town of Merhrinyghen. In 1720, he created a small pastry of dried egg foam and sugar from which the simplified meringue evolved. Its fame spread and Marie Antoinette is said to have prepared the sweet with her own hands at the Trianon in France.
Mince:
To chop into very fine pieces.
Mirepoix:
Chopped aromatic vegetables (usually two parts onion, one part carrot, and one part celery) used to flavor stocks, soups, braises and stews.
Mother Sauce:
See Grand Sauce.
Mix:

To beat or stir foods together until they are incorporated.

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Nappé:
The French word meaning “to coat with sauce;” thickened.
Nouvelle Cuisine:
The French term meaning “new cooking.” A style of cooking that emphasizes fresh, light ingredients combined with innovative presentation.

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Oblique or Roll Cut:
A knife cut used primarily with long cylindrical vegetables such as carrots, parsnips, or green beans, where the item is cut on a diagonal, rolled 180 degrees and cut on the same diagonal.
Offal:
Organ meats (brains, heart, kidneys, lungs, sweetbreads, tripe, tongue), and meats from the head, tail and feet.
Omelet:
A beaten egg dish that is cooked in a skillet, usually filled with a variety of ingredients then folded or rolled.

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Paella:
A Spanish dish made with onion, tomato, garlic, saffron, vegetables, and a variety of meats, which could include chicken, chorizo, and/or shellfish or other seafood.
Panbroil:
To cook in a skillet or pan using no fat other than what is needed to prevent sticking.
Papillote, en:
A French term for a cooking technique in which foods are enclosed in parchment and cooked in the oven in there own or little added liquid.
Parboil:
To partially cook in boiling water. Most parboiled foods require additional cooking.
Parch:
To dry or roast slightly through exposure to intense heat.
Parchment:
Heat-resistant paper used for lining baking pans, cooking items en papillote, and to make cones for decorating.
Pâte á Choux:
A creamy puff pastry dough bringing a mixture of butter, water, and flour to a boil and then beating in whole eggs.
Pickled Eggs:
Marinated hard-cooked eggs. The marinade may be made from vinegar and pickling spices although spicy cider or pickle juice works well, too. The juice from pickled beets is one of the most popular marinades. When sliced, the lovely red color is a pretty contrast to the yolk and white.
Pilaf:
A technique for cooking rice in which it is cooked briefly in butter, then smothered in stock or water with various seasonings.
Pit:
(noun) Seed in the center of the flesh of a fruit. (verb) To take the seed out of a piece of fruit or vegetable. (adjective) “Pitted” foods, such as cherries or dates, have had their seed removed.
Poach:
To cook in a small amount of gently simmering liquid.
Popovers:
An egg-rich, hollow bread baked in small cups or pans. A very hot oven creates the steam inside the batter that pops them to magnificent heights.
Prawn:
A crustaccan closely resembling shrimp. Also a term used for large shrimp.
Preserve:
To prevent food spoilage by pickling, salting, dehydrated, smoking, or boiling in syrup.
Proof:
To allow a yeast dough to rise before baking.
Protein:
A combination of amino acids, some of which are called essential because the human body needs them but can’t synthesize them. The human diet must regularly supply protein which contains all of the essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine. They are present in eggs in a pattern that matches very closely the pattern the body need, so the egg is often the measuring stick by which other protein foods are measured.
Pre-heat:
To heat the oven to the temperature needed before using it.
Puree:
To blend a food into a liquid or heavy paste. To process foods to a smooth mixture. Can be prepared in an electric blender, food processor, food mill or sieve.

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Quenelle: French for a light, poached dumpling, usually of a forcemeat bound with eggs, shaped in an oval by using two spoons. This technique could apply to other food items as well.

Quiche:
An unsweetened, open-faced custard pie served hot or cold as an entree, appetizer or snack. It requires only a few ingredients-eggs, milk, seasonings and whatever else you might wish to add in the way of chopped vegetables, meat, poultry, seafood or shredded cheese. Quiche can be made in a conventional pie plate or pan or in a special dish called a quiche dish. Quiches are traditionally made in a pastry crust, but crusts made from mashed potatoes, cooked rice or spinach, bread crumbs or cereals are also delicious and do not contain the high fat content of pastry.

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Raft:
A technique used for clarifying consomme and broth by using a mixture of ingredients that cause impurities to rise to the surface, forming a mass for easy removal.
Reconstitute:
To bring condensed or concentrated food to its original strength by adding water.
Reduce:

To boil liquids briskly, so that the liquid evaporates to thicken (usually) the sauce, making it rich and flavorful.

Risotto:
Rice that has been sauteed briefly in butter with onions and other aromatics, then combined with stock, added intermittently to produce a creamy texture and still au dente grains.
Roast:
To cook an uncovered piece of meat, poultry, or vegetables in an oven without adding liquid.
Rolling Boil:
To boil rapidly and continuously.
Rondelle:
A knife cut that produces flat, round, or oval pieces from cylindrical vegetables such as carrots.
Roux:
An appareil containing equal parts of fat (usually butter) and flour to produce a thickening agent for liquids. Roux can be cooked to various degrees of color/flavor (white, blond, or brown) depending on its intended use.

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Sachet d’epices:
A French term meaning “bag of spices.” Aromatic ingredients (parsley stems, peppercorns, thyme and bay leaf) bundled in cheesecloth and used to flavor soups, stocks, and other liquids.
Salad Dressing Terms:
Fat Free Salad Dressing–Less that 0.5 grams of fat per serving; Light Salad Dressing–1/3 fewer calories or 50% less fat than regular salad dressing; Low Calorie Salad Dressing–40 calories or less per serving; Low Fat Salad Dressing–3 grams or less of fat per serving; Reduced Fat Salad Dressing–At least 25% less fat than regular salad dressing. (all serving sizes based on 2 tablespoons)
Salsa:
The Mexican word for “sauce,” which can signify cooked or fresh mixtures. Salsa cruda is “uncooked salsa”; salsa verde is “green salsa,” which is typically based on TOMATILLOS, green CHILES and CILANTRO. A broad selection of salsas – fresh, canned or in jars – is available in supermarkets today. They can range in spiciness from mild to mouth-searing. Fresh salsas are located in a market’s refrigerated section. At home, they should be tightly covered and can be refrigerated for up to 5 days. Unopened cooked salsas can be stored at room temperature for 6 months; once opened, refrigerate them for up to 1 month.
Salmonella:
One of several types of bacteria which can cause food poisoning (Salmonellosis) if ingested in large numbers. It is found in the intestinal tract of animals, birds, insects, reptiles, seafood, and people. The bacteria can easily be passed from the intestinal tract to the hands and onto food. Although the inside of the egg was once considered almost sterile, Salmonella enteritidis (Se) has been found recently inside a small number of eggs (much less than 1%). If an egg does contain Se, the numbers in a freshly laid egg probably will be small and, if the eggs are properly refrigerated, will not multiply enough to cause illness in a healthy person. The majority of Salmonellosis outbreaks have been attributed to foods other than eggs-chicken, beef, and fish-to human carriers, and through them, utensils and other foods during preparation. Of the outbreaks involving eggs, almost all have occurred in the foodservice sector and have been the result of inadequate refrigeration and insufficient cooking. Se will not grow at temperatures below 40ºF. And is killed at 160ºF., known as the danger zone, are ideal for rapid growth. Illness from Se can be avoided through adequate refrigeration, proper cooking and sanitary kitchen and food handling procedures.
Sauté:
To cook on a stove in a small amount of oil or butter until tender. To fry without searing. To cook food in a small amount of fat over moderate heat while stirring to prevent it from burning or sticking to the pan. Most often done with onions, mushrooms and other chopped vegetable.
Scald:
To heat a liquid almost to the boiling point.
Scallop:
To bake with a sauce in a casserole. The food may either be mixed or layered with the sauce.
Score:
To cut slits through the outer surface of food before cooking, to tenderize, or to make a decorative pattern. To cut slits partway through the outer surface of foods. Often used with meat.
Sear:
To brown meat quickly on all sides, with high heat, to seal in the juices.
Semolina:
A coarsely milled hard wheat used for pasta, gnocchi, and couscous.
Shred:
To make long narrow strips of food with a food processor or a grater.
Shuck:
To remove the outer husk from corn or the shell from oysters, clams, etc.
Sieve:
To pass dry and liquid ingredients through a closely meshed metal utensil so as to separate liquid from solid and fine from course. To pass usually dry ingredients through a fine wire mesh so as to produce a uniform consistency.
Sift:
To use a sifter or sieve to remove lumps from dry ingredients, such as flour or sugar, and to lighten the mixture by incorporating air into it.
Simmer:
A method of cooking food in liquid that is kept at or just below the boiling point.
Slake:
To dissolve a thickening agent such as flour or cornstarch in a little cold water before adding it to the hot liquid which is to be thickened.
Slice:
To cut food into flat pieces of the same size.
Smoking Point:
The temperature at which fat begins to break when heated.
Soft Peaks:
The peaks of whipped cream or egg whites which curl or are rounded at the tip after beating when the beaters are slowly raised.
Soufflé:
A puffy, delicate, light-as-air creation. Savory or sweet, hot or cold, soufflés are sensational and impressive whether served as a main dish, accompaniment or dessert! Strictly speaking, a true soufflé consists of a thick white sauce blended with beaten egg yolks and leavened by stiffly beaten whites. It may also contain finely chopped or pureed meats, cheese, seafood or vegetables and is always served hot. Condensed cream soups or quick-cooking tapioca cooked in milk are sometimes substituted for the white sauce. For sweet or dessert soufflés, sugar is added to the sauce.
Skewer:
To thread usually meat and vegetables onto a sharpened rod, as in shish kabobs.
Skim:
To remove any fat or foam from the surface of liquid. To ladle or spoon off excess fat or scum from the surface of a liquid.
Smoke:
To preserve or cook through continuous exposure to wood smoke for a long time.

Stale bread cubes:
To make stale bread cubes for stuffings, remove crusts from a white loaf of unsliced bread. cut into 1 inch cubes, and leave overnight in a bowl, uncovered.
Steam:
A method of cooking food in the vapor given off by boiling water. To cook with steam by either putting food on a rack above steaming water in a tightly covered pot, or in a double boiler or using a steamer.
Steep:
To let a food, such as tea, stand in water that is just below boiling, to extract flavor and color.
Sterilize:
To cleanse and purify through exposure to intense heat.
Stew:
To cook slowly in small amount of liquid over a long period of time.
Stiff Peaks:
The peaks of whipped cream or egg whites that hold a point after beating when the beaters are slowly raised.
Stir:
To incorporate ingredients with a spoon to prevent them from sticking during cooking or to cool them after cooking. To combine ingredients with a circular motion until uniform in consistency.
Stir-fry:
Small pieces of food which are cooked by being rapidly fried in hot oil while stirring constantly. To cook meats and/or vegetables with a constant stirring motion in a small amount of oil in a wok or skillet over high heat.
Strain:
To pass through a strainer to separate solids from liquids. To pass through a strainer, sieve or cheesecloth so as to break down or remove solids or impurities.
Stock:
Made by simmering fish, chicken or meat bones in water with added seasonings and then strained to obtain only the liquid.
Stuff:
To fill or pack cavaties especially those of meats, vegetables, pasta and poultry.
Sugarpaste:
Also referred to as Roll-out icing or Pastillage. Sugarpaste – An icing sugar and gum based paste. Easy to mould, shape, color and roll out and you don’t have to wait for the sugarpaste to dry before finishing the final decoration on the cake. Also you can add gum to it so that it will dry harder for modelling flowers or sculptures.
Sweet Butter:
Sweet butter is commonly used to describe unsalted butter. In regular recipes, you may use salted butter if you like salt, but in baking it’s important to use unsalted or sweet butter when they call for it.
Swiss:

To pound meat, usually beef, with flour and seasonings to break up the muscle fibers, thus tenderizing the meat.

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Temper:
To heat gently and gradually; the process of incorporating hot liquid into a liaison to gradually raise its temperature. The proper method for melting chocolate or fondant.
Toast
To heat nuts, seeds, coconut or bread in the oven until they are slightly browned. This will bring out their natural flavor. To brown and crisp usually by means of direct heat.
Toss:
Using a lifting motion to tumble ingredients together.
Thicken:
To bind liquids and solids to form a thick mixture.
Truss:
To tie up meat or poultry with string before cooking in order to give it a more compact shape for even cooking and appearance.
Tunneling:
A fault in baked goods whereby the product is riddled with large holes or tunnels, caused by over mixing.

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Univalve:
A single-shelled mollusk, such as abalone or sea urchin.

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Veloute:
A sauce of white stock made from chicken, veal, or seafood, that has been thickened with white roux; one of the grand sauces.

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Whip:
To beat food rapidly by using a whisk or electric beater, to incorporate air into the mixture. To beat a mixture until air has been thoroughly incorporated and the mixture is light and frothy.
Whisk:
To whip or fluff by using a whisk.
Wilt:
To apply heat so as to cause dehydration and a droopy appearance.
Wok:
A round-bottomed pan, usually made of rolled steel, that is used for nearly all oriental cooking methods.

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Yeast:
A microscopic fungus whose metabolic processes are responsible for fermentation; used for leavening bread and in making cheese, beer, and wine.

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Zest:
The thin, brightly colored outer part of citrus rind, containing volatile oils, making it ideal for use as a flavoring.

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